Such an approach casts what is scientifically incorrect as ideology, without questioning the power that demands scientific character in the first place. Conversely, Althusser does not see a new rationality or world conception in everyday subaltern moments. Despite objections like these, the concept of theoretical practice is important for Althusser for giving a new twist to the endless debates over theory and praxis and for helping to glimpse how concrete activities are connected to theory and science.
Validation of a scientific theory, by contrast, should result from precise conceptual work. This includes how to understand material processes and identify their political economic operations. Althusser disagrees that Marx fails to move beyond the classical tradition of political economy. Is there a neutral standpoint that allows one the distance from which to impartially compare different theoretical options, that is, to try applying two or three theories to an object until one of them fits?
Althusser is outspoken in his criticism of the epistemology of Bachelard and Canguilhem. No such distanced standpoint is available since the process of producing scientific knowledge unfolds as a specifically theoretical praxis. Theoretical practice always entails working with concepts as ideological and conceptual raw material under specific relations; it never leaves the conceptual realm, but instead manipulates ideological concepts to create knowledge.
Taken together, the refusal of Hegel and the insight that the object of Capital is the capitalist mode of production leads Althusser to problematize the difference between essence and appearance. It is commonly assumed that there is an invariant and underlying structure to the capitalist mode of production: capital and its logic of self-valorizing value. This essence, which is typically understood as economically deterministic, unfolds via a series of mediations into a totality whose surface consists of inverted, reified, fetishised appearances that are non-economic: religion, law, state, philosophy, as well as the norms and values or consciousness of individuals who act accordingly.
Each of these superstructural phenomenon expresses the essence, which is why Althusser speaks of an expressive totality. This Hegelian Marxist notion remains reductionistic and economistic, even though it is more complex than the Marxisms of the social democratic and Stalinist traditions that start from simple linear cause-effect relations. In opposition to this, Althusser and his colleagues emphasize that Marx did not simply stand the Hegelian dialectic on its feet, but developed an alternative concept of dialectics, that of overdetermination.
They produced a theoretical concept of the structured whole [ gegliederte Ganze ] that has specific relations to economics, politics, and ideology. Each of these relations is marked by a specific efficacy, underlying logic, and temporality that are by no means independent of production relations but have a relative autonomy nonetheless. To offer two examples: 1. Compromises must be formed among all these forces in order to ensure the compulsion of capital ownership.
None of these spheres share a homogenous time, their relationship to one another is always out of joint because they each follow their own autonomous rhythm. Together these particular spheres form the structured whole of the capitalist mode of production.
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Althusser comprehends the manner by which these spheres overdetermine each other as the conjuncture. This concrete constellation is the object of a concrete analysis. For him the concept of a specific conjuncture cannot be derived theoretically, but rather must be determined as the contingent result of the displacement [ Verschiebung ] and condensation [ Verdichtung ] of non-synchronous forces and dynamics undergoing a process of overdetermination. Althusser did not offer a theory of society. Here it would seem then that Capital does not have anything to say about other spheres of bourgeois society.
The second way of reading Capital, which Frieder Otto Wolf proposes in his afterword to Reading Capital, is less economic than it is political. This reading takes the object of Capital to be the dominance of the capitalist mode of production over the bourgeois social formation. Accusations from political ecology, feminism or postcolonialism that Marx ignored their respective objects come up short if it can be shown that they themselves do not attend to the field of objects covered by the critique of political economy.
Already in both For Marx and, with his co-authors, Reading Capital , Althusser developed the foundation of a concept of the complexly structured whole. Crucial to understanding the complex whole is the concept of structure, of articulation. Althusser devotes significant attention to this concept, directly opposing it to concepts that reduce focus to one sphere of the whole. The structuration articulation is crucial for determining the capitalist mode of production.source link
Red years: Althusser’s lesson, Rancière’s error and the real movement of history
At the same time, however, the reach of the Althusserian research program is clear. The afterword by Bernard E. They are tinged more by Marxism than the others to emphasize their departure from Marxism and Althusser. Harcourt suggests that Althusser stands for a Marxism that sees the prison sentence as deriving largely from a legal theory of punishment. However, in his essay on ideology, Althusser developed the radical and Gramsci-esque thought that ideology develops within a strategic field in the form of practices and rituals as well as discursive practices. Harcourt rightly emphasizes — but without referencing Althusser on this — that the subject needs to be thought anew, going against an anthropological Marxism that sees work as human nature.
And finally, Harcourt critiques Althusser for offering a thesis of political class struggle that seeks to seize and deploy state power. Frieder O. Adorno — is much better understood today than it was at the start of the s. This repository of theoretical approaches has untapped potential for a future non-eclectic critical Marxist theory of the capitalist social formation. The present conjuncture is also determined by a historically-specific defeat and crisis of Marxist theory.
This speaks in favor of the theory as being historically rational and capable of re-forming itself on a new level even under duress. Even the material epistemic terrain of the university, which for decades was the natural place of activity like this, has become deprived of such activity. It seems no longer an option to address far-reaching and systematic issues in a clarifying and pathbreaking way, without having to deal with a wide variety of critical approaches.
Just as Capital can be read in different ways and its theories brought to bear on different things, so too does Reading Capital offer various lessons.
Βιογραφία συγγραφέα: Ranciere Jacques
Alex Demirovic is a senior fellow at the Rosa-Luxemburg-Stiftung. An extended version of the review also has been published, but it differs from the text provided for translation here. The extended version published September 28th, is available here. Die Tatsachen.
Althusser's Lesson: Jacques Rancière: Continuum
Zwei autobiographische Texte Frankfurt am Main: S. Fischer, Olivier Corpet and Yann Moulier Boutang, trans. David Fernbach Cambridge: Polity Press, , For this reason, Haug argues that Althusser does not break with the hermeneutic circle. Arnold I. Davidson, trans. Harootunian emphasizes the tension between temporalities, where anachronisms can disturb the homogeneous linear time of capitalism and the nation-state, and can orient the trajectory of …. Twenty-four hours into my incarceration in Santa Rita Jail, I found myself in yet another tactical conversation, dissecting the numerous failures that had led to ….
It was in the s that I began to ask myself a number of questions on the paths leading to socialism, and about existing socialism. It is the theme of dissolving margins, and the many ways in which Ferrante grapples with it, that makes the Neapolitan novels a testament to …. The analyst functions as a midwife of that knowledge that has no knowledge or mastery of his own.
In other words, Althusserianism is the villian in this book. From the very beginning, my concern has been with the study of thought and speech where they produce effects, that is, in a social battle that is also a conflict, renewed with each passing instant, over what we perceive and how we came to name it.
From the beginning, I have confronted the philosophies of the end of history with the topography of the possible; indeed, we can see the contours of this project appearing beyond the theses specific to Althusser, the book has its sights trained on the much broader logic by by which subversive thoughts are recuperated for the service of order.
The principle of this process of recuperation is the idea of domination propogated by the very discourses that pretend to critique it. These critiques in fact all share the same presupposition: domination functions thanks to a mechanism of dissimulation which hides its laws from its subjects by presenting them with an inverted reality. The simplistic view at first assigns to those who adopt it the exalted task of bringing their science to the blind masses. Eventually, though, this exactled task dissolves in a pure thought of resentment which declares the inability of the ignorant to be cured of their illusions, and hence the inability of the masses to take charge of their own destiny.
In other words, this style of theory— common to ideology critique, must Frankfurt school thought, and so on —recapitulates the very form of domination by characterizing the dominated as ignorant dupes in need of knowing masters inescapably in need of the academic theorist to overcome their chains.
Ironically, this style of theory ends up being based on the very premise that oppressive forms use to justify their privileged place: that because the masses are ignorant they are in need of a leader to organize their existence.
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Ideology critique, for example, is premised on the idea of a constitutive and essential inequality of the masses with respect to the master theorists. In The Philosopher and His Poor Ranciere carefully tracks this logic throughout the history of political theory. My book declared war on the theory of the inequality of intellegiences at the heart of supposed critiques of domination. It held that all revolutionary thought must be founded on the inverse presupposition, that of the capacity of the dominated … The prevailing view of the Cultural Revolution at the time, and it is a view the book shares, was that of an anti-autoritarian movement which confronted the power of the state and of the Party with the capacity of the masses.
Indeed, as Ranciere will disdainfully suggest later on in the book 11 — 12 that the real aim of these intellectuals is to justify the necessity of their own academic positions and jobs rather than anything revolutionary at all.
I was educated in a philosophy department, the Department of General Philosophy at the University of Sydney, that was formed in to permit the existence of courses in Marxism and Feminism. Unfortunately instead of respecting the pluralist impulse presiding over its formation, the department of GP substituted the dogmatic project of forming Marxist intellectuals under the aegis of Althusserian science, where the feminists had a subordinate role. At the beginning these meetings were packed, with over a hundred students. But very quickly the number declined, as the experienced militants heckled, ridiculed, and sarcastically but self-confidently demolished any opinion or expression that did not correspond to the Althusserian party line decided on by a small number of mutually supporting and rhetorically virulent staff and disciples.
I was horrified at the betrayal of those who had gone on strike against a dogmatic dominating hierarchy of professors and their administrative relays and support. The new department became even more dogmatic and oppressive. The Althusserians were male masters and disciples, whereas the women regrouped into a subordinate but oppressively organised sub-group based initially around a reading of Lacan, while paying provisional tribute to Althusser.
All the multilicity and heterogeneity that had served to found the department was squeezed into these to currents, or discouraged i. I came from a poor family and was initially impressed by the possibility of studying Marxism in a philosophy department. So my B.