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Cable modem A data modem that uses the bandwidth of a cable system. Cable network see also Cable television system. Cable reception Reception of television transmissions, from whatever originating source i. Cable television system Wired transmission system serviced by a cable operator, who receives television transmissions centrally and relays them to subscribers via a cable headend across a cable network. CAM Conditional access module Electronic hardware facility, usually incorporating a smart card slot, that makes it possible for a set-top box or other equipment to display encrypted, conditional access content.

Campaign A promotional effort over a specified interval based on the same strategy and creative idea. TV advertising campaigns typically consist of a schedule of advertising spots that are transmitted in one or more discrete batches lasting several weeks or longer or at lower intensity over longer and more continuous periods. Campaign planning software Predictive software used by media planners to estimate the audience for a schedule of advertising spots. CAPI Computer assisted personal interview Method of conducting face-to-face interviews with the use of a personal computer for prompting questions and recording answers.

Cash discount A discount granted by the media supplier to an advertiser for payment within a certain period of time - e. Also referred to as prompt payment discount. Catch-up TV TV service that makes broadcast programming available on-demand for a specified period after the real-time broadcast e.

CATI Computer assisted telephone interview Method of conducting interviews over the telephone with the use of a personal computer for prompting questions and recording answers. Key defining criteria are that the CATV system must relay cable transmissions to multiple dwellings on multiple premises and is serviced by a cable operator who charges a monthly per subscriber fee. Conditional access involves encrypting the transmissions and providing programmable regulation of their decryption , typically via smart cards. Respondents can answer the questions either at home or in their workplace, even with several interruptions.

CB Centre break see also Within programme break. Cbb Closing break bumper see also Obb Opening break bumper. CDN Content delivery network Network of computers acting in co-operation in order to deliver content to end users over the Internet. Cell panel control Panel control consisting of two or more interlocking variables. Cell-matrix panel control Panel control consisting of two or more interlocking panel variables. Cell-matrix weighting Method of weighting that employs a single matrix of interlocking variables for adjusting the actual sample profile to the target sample profile.

Cellular interface Meter interface with cellular phone connection. Census The process of collecting vital information on the social, economic and housing characteristics of every member of a population. In contrast to sampling where information is only obtained from a subset of a population. Central processing base Term sometimes used to refer to the central data collection, storage and processing system at the offices of the data supplier.

Chain break The time between network programmes when a network affiliated station identifies itself to viewers and during which commercial announcements are aired. Channel coverage is often expressed as a percentage of the total survey population. Channel mapping A feature of some TV sets, VCR's and set-top boxes which allows them to receive the transmissions of a TV channel in the same tuning position even if it has moved to a different frequency.

Channel penetration Estimated percentage of TV homes within the survey universe that a can receive and b have one or more of their TV sets tuned to a given TV channel. The definition may include stipulations about acceptable picture quality. Channel reception TV channels that can be received by a given TV set or TV home, as determined by an exhaustive check of tuning frequencies.

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Channel share Estimated audience share of a TV channel. Channel viewing repertoire Average number of channels that viewers within a selected population e. Checkerboarding The standard method of scheduling programmes in prime time by offering different programmes in the same time period every night. This is the opposite of "strip" programming, in which the same series airs different episodes in the same time period every day. Strip programme scheduling is the prevailing form for all other dayparts except prime time. Churn rate Index of turnover applied to commercial pay-TV systems as a whole or to channel packages, especially premium pay-TV services.

It is an important indicator of pay-TV service performance, which may be defined in several ways. The usual method of estimating churn is to divide the number of subscriber disconnections during a set period by the average number of subscribers during that period or the number of subscribers at the beginning of that period. This produces a result representing an annualised percentage.

CI Completed interview Interview with eligible survey respondent that has been successfully completed and validated. Claimed weight of viewing Panel classification variable based on separate establishment survey data that record claimed weight of household viewing. Click fraud Form of Internet crime, where a person, automated script or computer programme clicks on an Internet advertisement in order to generate a charge-per-click. Client initiated ad impression see also Ad impression Online. Clip A brief segment excerpted from a broadcast stream.

Cluster Grouping several commercials together during one break. Coaxial cable Transmission technology used by broadband data and cable systems that consist of transmitting electrical signals down conducting wires with protective insulation. Co-channel interference Interference on a channel due to another signal on the same channel.

Codec A codec Coder-Decoder is a piece of hardware or software for encoding and decoding digital audio and video signals. Coder Device for converting a signal from one form into another digital form , to meet the requirements of a particular form of communication. Commercial Advertisement, announcement, spot or message aired on television, radio or cable which is paid for by an advertiser. Commercial airtime quota Airtime minutage allowance that is available for advertising according to international and national rules that vary greatly across different countries.

The rules may also vary for different types of TV stations within the same country. For example, public service stations that receive mixed public and advertising funding may be subject to stricter quotas than other channels. Likewise, licensed terrestrial commercial analogue services are often subject to more stringent quotas than other cable and satellite channels as a condition of their licences. Lastly the rules will often additionally specify the distribution of commercial minutage by time of day, the frequency and positioning of commercial breaks within and between programmes, the duration of commercial breaks and other requirements, such as the obligation on some TV channels to sell all their airtime in order to limit TV channel manipulation of advertising demand and consequent airtime prices.

Commercial and programme logs Record of all commercials and programmes transmitted by TV channels. The information may be provided by the TV channel itself or by an independent source and is matched against processed individual viewing statements so as to permit viewing figures for specific commercials and programmes. The logs may contain additional information, such as programme genre codes, which can be used to estimate and report audiences for different kinds of programming.

Commercial break An interval during which advertisements are shown within television transmissions. Commercial impact see also Impact. Commercial ratings Audiences for advertising commercial spots. Common interface Hardware and software interface that may be embedded in TV sets or set-top boxes to permit the addition of other components, such as conditional access modules for pay-TV applications, for enhancing the functionality of the TV set. Community television Television services owned and operated by "communities" rather than governments, business or television industry professionals.

They may be funded through government grants or subsidies, sponsorship, membership, or a combination thereof. Competition mapping A mapping of the performances of competing TV stations. Present day more advanced compression e. MPEG-4 and other broadcast transmission technologies are making it possible for single carrier frequencies to carry ten or more digital TV channels; although digital terrestrial broadcast systems typically carry six to eight digital channels per carrier frequency. Computer bureaux see also Software house.

Concentration index A number indicating a percentage difference between one value and a benchmark value for comparison. The benchmark value, however defined, is fixed at Conditional buy-through Common form of pay-TV pricing where the purchase of premium content is conditional on buying one or more other services. The most common example is the requirement by many pay-TV operators to buy a basic subscription package in order to be able to subscribe to a film or sports package.

Confidence interval Term used in parametric statistics to specify the margin of error associated with a particular survey estimate for a given level of significance. Depending on the level of certainty required, higher or lower probability values may be used to specify the confidence interval. P2P file sharing. Consolidated audience The consolidated audience is the sum of the live and timeshift audiences. Consolidated viewing Sum of live and all timeshift viewing of television transmissions within a set time interval after the transmissions Note: definition allows for the same viewer to be counted more than once as a viewer of a transmission.

Constant viewing Long viewing session without any change in registered set use or viewer presence. Constant viewing is used by some TAM systems as a quality control during data validation. Consumer generated media Materials posted by users on the Internet. At first, the term was mainly used in connection with Internet forums, blogging sites and wikis; but has subsequently widened to cover new multimedia, video and social networking applications.

Content aggregator Company or organisation that gathers material for distribution to end users after acquiring the necessary rights. Content protection General term for protection of copyright, whether via conditional access and encryption of broadcast signals or DRM measures relating to digital networks. Contention ratio Ratio of the potential maximum demand to the bandwidth available on a network.

The greater the number of users, the higher the ratio. During periods of peak demand this can result in lower effective bandwidth. In the case of on-demand TV services, the contention ratio is the ratio of total subscribers to the peak number of unique simultaneous streams. Contract specification Technical terms of survey content, data delivery and terms of purchase as laid down in TAM contracts between data suppliers and their clients.

Convergence The delivery of several types of content e. TV broadcasts, Web TV, hi-fi audio, etc. The introduction of digital technology has greatly expanded the potential for convergent applications on the TV screen. Conversion factor An assumed scaling factor that may be used for converting a measure classified by one criterion e.

Adults Converter Device for changing the frequency of a signal. Converters are commonly used a by cable and other TV distribution systems that entail reception of incoming signals and retransmission to viewers on locally available frequencies as well as b for enabling reception of digital TV signals on analogue TV sets. Cookie Information sent by a server to a web browser and sent back by the browser unchanged each time it accesses the server.

Originally developed in order to assist shopping basket applications, cookies can serve in a number of contexts to authenticate, track and store information about visitors to a Web site. This has led to concerns about privacy. Advertising companies may use cookies to track user behaviour over multiple Web sites, which can be used for behavioural targeting. Cost efficiency Financial performance measure of a schedule of advertising spots that is calculated by dividing the price paid by the audience delivery with reference to the target audience s of the advertising campaign.

Couch potato Television viewers who just sit relaxed and watch TV, doing little to interact with the TV set beyond changing channels when the mood takes them. Cover Measure of advertising reach. Co-viewing Defines the condition where members of a reference target are the focus of an analysis only if they are watching TV together with other members, chosen according specific demographics.

An example of a Co-viewing target is Females watching with Children. CP Campaign period advertising Interval spanning from the first to the last days of a campaign schedule of advertising spots. CPA Cost-per-action Cost of Internet advertising based on the number of visitors taking some specifically defined action in response to an ad, divided by the money paid.

CPC Cost-per-click Cost of Internet advertising based on the number of clicks an ad receives divided by the money being paid. CPE Consumer premises equipment Equipment that subscribers to a service must install in their homes in order to receive it e. CPI Cost-per-impression Cost of Internet advertising based on the number of ad impressions divided by the money paid.

CPP's are widely used as a measure of the cost efficiency of advertising campaigns or for comparing price differences across different TV stations. In peoplemeter measurement, this equates with the instructions of when panel members or their guests should register their presence as viewers e.


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Cross-border overspill Overspill of domestic TV station signals into neighbouring countries. Key output measures are audience ratings, amount of viewing and audience share. CRT Cathode ray tube Traditional technology for displaying TV images on a screen by means of an electron gun firing electrons at a fluorescent screen. Though successful throughout the last century, CRT is being rapidly superseded by other technologies that can generate images on much larger flat screens, avoiding all the bulkiness of CRT boxes.

CSV Coincidental study of viewing Parallel surveys of viewing for checking the accuracy of the main survey. CSV's are either "internal", based on the same sample as the main survey, or "external", being based on a separate independent sample. External CSV's are rarely used in TAM research, but most peoplemeter panels employ internal CSV's usually once or twice a year as a systematic quality control for checking a the accuracy of key panel classification variables that are liable to change e.

CTR Click-through rate Unit measure of online advertising defined as the number of clicks on an ad on a web page divided by the total number of times the ad was delivered ad impressions. An alternative definition sometimes used is to define CTR as the number of users that click on a web page divided by the total number of times the ad was delivered.

CTS Content tracking system Content identification technology based on comparison of audio signatures used for a variety of TAM applications. Its principle of operation includes generating signatures from the unknown content's audio track and comparing those signatures against identical signatures generated for all measured content streams e. Cume Cumulative rating Cumulative total of ratings across a target audience over a given period, such as an advertising campaign, or fixed time interval e.

DAB Digital audio broadcasting International transmission technical standard for digital radio services. Daily reporting sample see also Net daily reporting sample in-tab sample. Data accessibility Degree to which client users can access data generated by a TAM system. Different users may enjoy different levels of access. The degree of access is partly a function of the data which Users are permitted to examine and partly a function of the software options for analysis. Data compression A process that reduces the number of bits used to encode a signal by eliminating gaps, empty fields, redundancies, or unnecessary data.

Data entry Entering data into computer, which includes keyboard entry, scanning and voice recognition. It may be used as an alternative to single source survey research in order not to over-burden survey respondents with the collection of two sets of research data. Data reporting threshold Threshold of acceptable sample size for permitting data access. There are wide variations in practice across different TAM systems. Within Europe, about half the TAM systems employ thresholds for warning users when sample sizes for analysis are low and consequently unstable. Slightly fewer employ blocking thresholds that prevent access when sample sizes are considered unacceptably low for analysis.

Data supplier Market research company engaged in the collection and production of TAM data for delivery to the market. Datacasting Broadcasting of information and other data services via digital TV, often as a supplementary offering to enhance the appeal of digital TV channels. Day after recall Method of collecting audience data in interview surveys or self-completion questionnaires that ask respondents to recall their viewing or other activities on the previous days. Surveys may employ a recall period of more than one day e. Daypart Division of the broadcast day constituting a single timeband e.

Most TAM systems divide the day into about eight dayparts e. The dayparts correspond with broad variations in audience size and composition across the broadcast day. DB Delayed broadcast A network TV programme that is delayed for airing in a given market at a different time than the time it airs nationally. The WARC plan envisaged allocating each country five K band frequencies for high power analogue satellite transmissions that would permit nationwide reception with dishes no greater than 90 cm in diameter. Several national projects were developed during the early eighties; however, the DBS projects were rapidly superseded by major technological advances that created room for a far greater number of TV channels to be broadcasted by medium power satellites using a different part of the radio frequency spectrum and at much lower costs.

Decoder Device also called Converter that decodes digital transmission signals and converts them for display on to the TV set. Decoder interface Interface between a meter and a set-top decoder that permits the monitoring of signals passing through the decoder. Definitive viewing data Final complete set of viewing statements from which quantitative estimates of viewing are generated. Delay The elapsed time between the instant when user information is submitted to the network and when it is received by the user at the other end.

Demographic variable Population variable for classifying individuals or households in terms of personal or family characteristics. Descrambler An electronic circuit that restores a scrambled video signal to its standard form. DFM Direct frequency measurement TAM methodology that identifies channels through metering their frequencies and comparing their records against the channel map for the TV set or other input source being monitored.

Dial-up Method of Internet access that involves hooking up the PC to a telephone network using a modem and telephone line. Also known as narrowband. Dial-up was the early form of Internet access and is significantly slower than broadband, which is now superseding it.

Diary measurement Family of TAM methodologies in which survey respondents record their viewing in diaries. Diary samples may be discrete or they may constitute short or long term panels. TAM diaries normally consist of booklets with one page, or a double-page spread, for each day of the week. There is considerable scope for variation in terms of format, unit intervals of measurement e.

Digital General term for all radio frequency wave signals that have been transformed into binary units of data bits. The transformation of all video and audio signal information into bits is fundamental to expanding the opportunities for multimedia and convergent applications sharing the same output source i. TV or PC screen.


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Digital audio player Device for playing, storing and organising digital music files. Digital set-top box A device which accepts digital encoded television broadcasts and converts them to display on an analogue television set. New boxes with added functionality provide local storage of programming on hard discs, and Internet access. Digital switchover DSO Process of replacing analogue with digital TV broadcasts, for which prior analogue switch-off is a prerequisite condition. Digitisation Process of converting an analogue signal into digital format. Disaggregated viewing data Same as Elementary or Respondent level viewing data - Processed viewing data held at the level of individual respondents.

The basic components of disaggregated viewing data are individual viewing statements consisting of complete time records across each broadcasting day of all viewing sessions by every family member and guest on all metered TV sets in the home. Dish antenna A high-grain antenna, shaped like a dish, which is used for the transmission and reception of ultra-high-frequency and microwave signals.

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Disproportional sampling by selected region s is quite common in TAM research. Distribution platform Operating system for distributing TV services to viewers. Distribution platforms are typically classified according to whether the signals are in analogue or digital and delivered to the viewer via satellite, cable, terrestrial, DSL, FTTH reception. Further distinctions may be made according to whether the services are free or pay, and whether packaged or delivered by a particular platform operator, which markets its TV services as a single entity.

DLP Digital light processing Rear-projection technology developed and owned by Texas Instruments for projecting video images on a large screen by means of a matrix of microscopically small mirrors on a semi-conductor chip. DMCA Digital millennium copyright act A US copyright law which criminalises production and dissemination of technology that can circumvent measures taken to protect copyright, not merely infringement of copyright itself, and heightens the penalties for copyright infringement on the Internet.

DNS Domain name system Stores and associates many types of information with domain names, but most importantly, it translates domain names computer hostnames to IP addresses. It also lists mail exchange servers accepting e-mail for each domain. In providing a worldwide keyword-based redirection service, DNS is an essential component of contemporary Internet use. Docking station Recharging device into which participants in portable peoplemeter research place their meters overnight.

DOCSIS Data over cable service interface specification An international standard developed by CableLabs that defines the interface requirements for cable modems involved in high-speed data distribution over cable television networks. DOG Digital on-screen graphic Channel identification logo, usually appearing in top left or right corner of the screen. The definition is independent of the point of origin of the broadcasts. At the same time the same TV channel may be broadcast as a domestic service to more than one national market. Downlink Signal pathway from the satellite to the earth.

Download Reception of data from a remote system, such as a web site or FTP server and related systems. Upload is the exact opposite. Downstream Term used widely in interactive TV iTV terms to refer to the signal pathway from the service provider e. This will usually have higher bandwidth demands than the upstream return path from the home to the service provider. Opposite of Upstream. Drip Continuous low intensity advertising over an extended period, usually aimed at giving regular reminders to viewers. One of the key aims is to prevent unauthorised duplication of content and transmission to other parties via file sharing or portable storage items such as CDs.

Drop-down menu On-screen text menu offered by interactive digital TV channels that viewers can call up with their remote control handsets. DSL Digital subscriber line Generic term for technologies that permit the delivery of broadband services over voice telephony networks. DSLAM Digital subscriber line access multiplexer Network device, usually located in the local exchange, for aggregating the data connections of multiple end-users. DSP Digital signal processing Study of the digital representation of signals, often involving the digitisation of analogue signals, which may subsequently be de-converted into analogue form for onscreen display.

DSP may take place in a number of different domains, such as time, space and frequency. Applications include digital image processing and video compression. DST Daylight saving time Daylight saving time also summer time in British English is the convention of advancing clocks so that afternoons have more daylight and mornings have less. Typically clocks are adjusted forward one hour near the start of spring and are adjusted backward in autumn. Many countries have used it since then; details vary by location and change occasionally. DTH Direct-to-Home Direct-To-Home satellite transmission and reception - TV transmissions via satellite intended for "direct-to-home" reception in households equipped with parabolic dish antenna.

Also called DMB-T. DTV Digital television General term for TV services that are transmitted into the home digitally, where they are received either by a set-top box decoder, which converts them into analogue form for display on a conventional analogue TV set, or by an integrated digital TV receiver. Duplication Audience overlap across successive unit intervals of measurement. Each standard may exist in SD or HD formats. DVB standards are widely used inside and outside Europe. DVD Digital video disc player Device for playing, but not recording digital video discs.

DVDR player Device for playing and recording digital video discs. DVR Digital video recorder Devices that allow TV viewers to timeshift, pause and fast forward until real time using hard-drive video storage. Dynamic variable Variable that is unstable in terms of a rapidly changing population profile. This is most likely to apply to equipment and other TV related variables e. EB End break see also Between programme break.

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EBU Europe European Broadcasting Union: International professional and trade association of national television and public radio service broadcasters in 52 countries in Europe, North Africa and the Middle East and 45 associate members in 28 countries from other regions. It is generally classified as a 2. The rules may either be for editing data in varies largely for assigning uncovered viewing or for editing data out e.

Effective frequency The level of exposure frequency at which reach is deemed "effectively" delivered. Effective reach The number or percentage of a target audience that is exposed to a schedule of advertising spots at a set level of frequency. This will typically specify a lower threshold value indicating the minimum level of exposure deemed as sufficient for "effective" advertising purposes e.

Effective sample size The size of random sample that would provide the same standard error as the actual sampling plan on which a survey result is based. In practice, measures of effective sample size are usually calculated by examining the effects of panel weights alone. Efficiency see also Cost efficiency. Electronic diary Diary where respondents record their viewing on a small portable display screen using a light pen.

Elementary viewing data Same as Disaggregated viewing data - processed viewing data held at the level of individual respondents. E-mail Multimedia correspondence over the Internet. E-mail advertising Banner ads, links or advertisers sponsorships that appear in e-mail marketing communications. Embedded gap Term used in data editing to denote an interval of uncovered viewing sandwiched between two intervals of covered viewing. Embedded signal Supplementary signal e. TAM data suppliers may use it for channel or programme identification purposes.

EMRO Europe European Media Research Organisations: International group of experts in national media audience measurement mainly representatives of market research companies engaged in media research or members of industry committees overseeing media research. Many domestic satellite channels, whether subscription or free-to-air, employ encryption for reasons of copyright. Pay-TV services employ additional conditional access technologies in order to restrict access to authorised paying customers and prevent signal theft or piracy.

Enforced panel turnover Homes dropped from a panel on the initiative of the data supplier. Entry package Minimum basic package of channels and services to which subscribers to analogue or digital pay TV services must sign up.

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Enumeration surveys may be conducted on their own, independently of any other survey as in USA or as the initial phase of an establishment or other survey phases, where they are used in order to a update population estimates and b provide a sampling frame of addresses for designating the establishment survey sample. The EPG is an on-screen listings guide of TV programming and other on-demand content and services which users may navigate by means of their television remote control handsets or other devices. The information contained in the EPG is broadcast metadata received and read by applications middleware in a set-top box.

They may also be related to viewing habits e. ES Establishment survey Large-scale survey for collecting establishment, demographic and other household data. The ES provides the basis for deriving population profile estimates and determining target profiles for selected panel control variables unless taken from other external sources.

The ES samples are also generally used as a source of addresses for panel recruitment. Ethernet Generic term for wide range of computer-based technologies underpinning communications between devices over local area networks LANs. Originally devised for communication between computers over a cable co-axial network, it has developed into a complex technology that underpins the vast majority of local computer networks.

Ethernet stations communicate by sending data in small packets that carry information about the address and source of the packet. Deployed globally, the Ethernet defines a set of wiring and signal standards for the physical communications, as well as two means of network access and common address formats.

Event trigger Information included in a transmission stream that indicates the start and end points of a programme, commercial or promo. Event types: Classifications of broadcast types found in the TV environment. They can be major, like commercial and non-commercial, or detailed like spot, sponsor, announcement or programme.

Excess viewing Measured daily individual viewing that exceeds TAM system threshold criteria of extreme length e. Many TAM systems employ excess viewing as a quality control criteria during data validation. Exclusive reach Individuals who, during the period of analysis, have watched only one channel for at least one minute. Exit interview Interview conducted with home leaving the panel, usually for future panel management purposes.

Expansion factor see also Weight factor. Export AGB Nielsen Media Research's TV Events system module used to save the monitoring data in a format required by external applications such as analysis software and third party database systems. Exposure A person's physical contact with an advertising medium or message. In the case of television, exposure to an advertising spot is treated as equal to the measured audience for that spot. Extension option Extra period typically one or two years that a TAM contract may run beyond its initial expiry date at the discretion of the contracting party.

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